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Natural disasters like floods can sweep away top layers of sites to other locations.
Absolute dating represents the absolute age of the sample before the present.
Radiocarbon is produced in the upper atmosphere after Nitrogen-14 isotopes have been impacted by cosmic radiation.
Radiocarbon is then taken in by plants through photosynthesis, and these plants in turn are consumed by all the organisms on the planet.
The Muslims count the Prophet’s departure from Mecca, or the Hegira, as their beginning at AD 662.
As the rock gets older the proportion of lead increases.
The numbers refer to the atomic weight, so Carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, Carbon-13 has 6 protons and 7 neutrons, and Carbon-14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
The extra neutrons in Carbon-14’s case make it radioactive (thus the term, radiocarbon).
When it decays it forms thorium-234 which is also unstable.
Finally, after a series of radioactive isotopes are formed it becomes lead-206, which is stable.